RUSART > History of Arts > Salvador Dali

Salvador Dali

(7 July 1887 - 28 March 1985)

 

DegasEdgar Degas was a French painter, graphic artist, and sculptor. He began to paint early in his life. By eighteen, he had turned a room in his home into an artist's studio, and in 1853 he registered as a copyist in the Louvre. His father, however, expected him to go to law school. Degas duly registered at the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris in November 1853, but made little effort at his studies there. In 1855, Degas met Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, whom he revered, and whose advice he never forgot: "Draw lines, young man, and still more lines, both from life and from memory, and you will become a good artist." In April of that same year, Degas received admission to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

In 1854-1859 he made several trips to Italy, some of the time visiting relatives, studying the Old Masters; he painted historical pictures and realistic portraits of his relatives: Portrait of Marguerite de Gas, the Artist's Sister, Portrait of Achille de Gas in the Uniform of a Cadet, Portrait of Hilaire de Gas, Grandfather of the Artist. By 1860 Degas had drawn over 700 copies of other works, mainly early Italian Renaissance and French classical art.

In the 1860s he was introduced to Impressionism by Édouard Manet and gave up his academic aspirations, turning for his subject matter to the fast-moving city life of Paris, particularly the ballet, theatre, circus, racetrack, and cafés. Influenced by Japanese prints and the new medium of photography, he used displaced figure groupings and unfamiliar perspective to create figure groups seen informally and in movement, similar in effect to snapshots. His fascination with the ballet and the racetrack sprang from his interest in picturing people absorbed in the practiced movements of their occupations.

At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Degas enlisted in the National Guard, where his defense of Paris left him little time for painting. During rifle training his eyesight was found to be defective, and for the rest of his life his eye problems were a constant worry to him.

After the war, in 1872, Degas began an extended stay in New Orleans, Louisiana, where his brother René and a number of other relatives lived. Staying in a house on Esplanade Avenue, Degas produced a number of works, many depicting family members. One of Degas' New Orleans works, depicting a scene at The Cotton Exchange at New Orleans, garnered favorable attention back in France, and was his only work purchased by a museum (that of Pau) during his lifetime.

After his return from America, Degas had closer contact with dealers such as Durand-Ruel, in an attempt to bring his work to public attention independently of the Salon. In 1874 Degas helped organize the 1st Impressionist exhibition. He always found the term “Impressionism” unacceptable – mainly, perhaps, because he did not share the Impressionists’ over-riding interest in landscape and color. He did not care to be tied down to one method of painting. Nonetheless, Degas was to participate in all the group exhibitions except that of 1882. Degas used the group and the exhibitions high-handedly to promote himself. His strategy seems to have been to show off his own diversity at the exhibitions, for he always entered works that were thematically and technically very varied

Although he is known to have been working in pastel as late as the end of 1907, and is believed to have continued making sculpture as late as 1910, he apparently ceased working in 1912, when the impending demolition of his longtime residence on the rue Victor Massé forced a wrenching move to quarters on the boulevard de Clichy. He never married and spent the last years of his life, nearly blind, restlessly wandering the streets of Paris before dying in 1917.

Dancers
Cleveland Museum of Art

At the Milliners Shopping
Bequest of Grace Underwood Barton

Ballet Rehearsal, 1873
The Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts

At the Races in the Country 1875
Oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Ballet Rehearsal

Woman in the Bath 1886
Hill-Stead Museum, Farmington, Connecticut

Four Dancers , 1899
Oil on canvas
National Gallery of Art, Washington

La classe de danse (The Dancing class) 1873-75
Oil on canvas
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Two Dancers in Blue 1899
Oil on canvas

Dancers in Blue1890
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Place de la Concorde 1875
Oil on canvas
Hermitage, St Petersburg

Ballet School 1879-80
Oil on canvas
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington (D.C.)

Ballet 1899

Ballet Rehearsal 1875
Gouache, Pastel
Private Collection

The Dance Foyer at the Opera Ru Le Peletier 1872
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Ballet Scene c. 1904-1906
Pastel
Sammlung C. Dale, New York

Ballet Rehearsal 1878-79
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Ballet 1872
Oil on canvas
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main

At the stage

Dancers 1872
Oil on panel
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1880
pastel on paper
Sammlung Mrs. Thomas Card, New Bedford

Primaballerina 1878
pastel
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Dancer1877-1878
oil on canvas
Pushkin Museum, Moscow

Russian Dancers 1885
pastel
Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

Dancers 1898
pastel on paper
Ordrupgaardsamlingen, Kopenhagen

Dancers 1873
oil on canvas
Sammlung H. de Ganay, Paris

Ende der Arabeske1877
pastel on paper
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Rehersal 1873-1874
oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Harlekin and Colombine 1884
pastel on paper
Österreichische Galerie, Vienna

Dancers 1885
pastel on paper
Musée Cognacq-Jay, Paris

Dancer1881-83
pastel on paper
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Dancer1891
pastel on paper
Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest

Dancer c. 1881
pastel on paper

Der Star des Balletts 1878
pastel on paper
Private collection, Paris

Dancer1890
pastel on paper
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Dancer 1890
oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Dancer at Stange c. 1888
oil on canvas
Phillips Collection, Washington (D.C.)

Dancers in Foyer 1887-90
oil on canvas
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Kopenhagen

Dancer in Blue1890
pastel on paper
Pushkin Museum, Moscow

Dancer in Pink 1884
oil on canvas
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Kopenhagen

During the Dance Class: Madame Cardinal c. 1888
oil on canvas
Museum of Art, Philadelphia

Exhausted dancer 1887-90
pastel on paper

Two Dancers

Dancer
pastel on paper
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Dancers Practicing at the Bar1877
Mixed media on canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Balette Scene
pastel on paper

Ballet Exam

Ballet School
oil on canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Ballet School
Oil on canvas

In the Theatre
pastel on paper

Race Horses 1885-88
Pastel on panel
Philadelphia Museum of Art, USA

Three Ballet Dancers 1899
Pastel on paper
Barnes Foundation

The Singer in Green
Pastel
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Seated Dancer c. 1879-80
Charcoal and pastel on paper mounted on pasteboard
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

Les repasseuses (Women Ironing) 1884
Oil on canvas
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Woman Combing her Hair 1887-90
Louvre, Paris

L'absinthe 1876
Oil on canvas
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Cafe-Concierto Ambassadors 1877

Dancer in Red

Dancers

Dancer

Dancers

Woman in Bath

Woman in Bath
Pastel on tracing paper
The Art Institute of Chicago

Woman in Her Toilet

The Baker's Wife 1885
Pastel on paper
The Henry and Rose Pearlman Foundation

Study

David and Goliath 1864
The Art Institute of Chicago

Two Dancers
Study

Vilonist and Young Womanc. 1871

Dancer Stretching at the Bar c. 1877-1880
Pastel with stumping on ivory laid paper
The Art Institute of Chicago

Jockeys Before The Race 1878-79

Dancer Bending Forward 1881
Charcoal with stumping, heightened with white and yellow pastel with stumping, on blue laid paper ruled with charcoal
The Art Institute of Chicago

Study

Dancers in the Wings c. 1878
Norton Simon Foundation, Pasadena, CA

Lorenzo Pagans and Auguste de Gas (the artist's father) 1871-72
Oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Before the Start
Oil on canvas

L’orchestre


Woman Having Her Hair Combed c. 1885
Pastel
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Bellelli family
Oil on canvas

Count Lepic and His Daughters 1870
Oil on canvas
stolen from Sammlung E. G. Bührle

Lake and Mountains c. 1890-1892
Sammlung H. Havemeyer jr., New York

Landscape with cliffs

The Fashion Store
Oil on canvas
Art Institute, Chicago

The Collector of Prints 1870
Oil on canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The Cotton Exchange 1873
oil on canvas

Portrait of Diego Martelli
oil on canvas

Portrait of Young Woman
Oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Ironing woman 1870
Oil on canvas

Still life with Lizard c. 1858-1860
oil on canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Hilaire de Gas
oil on canvas

Woman with Chrysanthemes
Oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris


In the Cafe Ambassateur
pastel

The dog song 1876-77

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